Overview of 10 Proven Change Management Models

Change Management Models PPT Template

Any organization which wants to remain up-to-date with the evolution of market conditions, customer requirements, or service delivery cannot elude the inevitability of embracing change. Though painful, change is necessary and can be hard to implement across an organization. This is particularly the case when a radical shift in procedures is to be implemented. Effective change management is essential for the smooth and successful transition of adopting the new and discarding the old. We have created a list of 10 proven change management models that organizations can use for effective change management.

What is Change Management?

Change Management (CM) is a term used for various approaches used for preparing and supporting organizations for change.  A number of change management models are used for preparing and helping organizational teams and individuals for implementing, adapting and managing new technology, processes, acquisitions, mergers, etc.

Change management can include introducing new technology, changing to a new production process to reallocating resources, restructuring of departments and even managing a newly acquired asset.

Change Management Frustrated Men PPT Template

Introduction to Change Management Models

Many of the change management models during the 1960s come fom grief studies. The similarity between grieving from health-related issues was compared with the employees’ mourning  during a phase of job-related transitions. This was later built upon and modified by various individuals, including theorist Everett Rogers, Julien Phillips, who worked as a consultant at McKinsey & Company, Jeffrey Hiatt, John Kotter, and others. Below is an overview of 10 famous change management models which organizations have used for effective change management.

1. Change Management Foundation and Model

Change Management Foundation consists of four stages. These include determining the need for change, preparing and planning for change, followed by the implementation phase, and sustaining it.

2. John Kotter’s 8-Step Process for Leading Change

Dr. John P. Kotter developed the 8-step process for leading changeHe was also the founder of the management consulting firm Kotter International. His 8-step model included creating a sense of urgency, building a guiding coalition, forming strategic vision and initiatives, enlisting a voluntary army, removing barriers through enabling action, generating short-term wins, sustaining the acceleration and institutional change.

Kotter´s 8 Step Model PPT Template
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3. The Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle

Created by Dr. Williams Edwards Deming, the Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle (PDCA) comprises choosing between which changes to implement. PDCA or the Deming cycle is basically a cycle for control and improvement of products and processes. The model prescribes looking into four factors for this purpose. These include planning change by picking goals and strategies. The second step includes implementing the plan, followed by checking results to understand how your goals, strategies, and plans are working. This is the phase where data can be analyzed and compared to the expected outcomes to understand if desired goals are being met. The final step is to ‘act’ or adjust your process to improve it.

This change management framework might be helpful for implementation on a small scale before the changes are implemented across the organization.

Source: PDCA Flat Diagram for PowerPoint by SlideModel.com

4. The Prosci ADKAR Model

Developed by Jeffrey Hiatt, this model is meant to focus on the people associated with the change. Instead of working linearly, the ADKAR model represents various goals that should be reached for successful change management. Hence, the ADKAR model stands for awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, and reinforcement.

ADKAR Model PPT Template
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5. McKinsey 7-S Model

McKinsey 7-S Model provides seven elements that are to be assessed in terms of how they affect each other to implement change. This somewhat makes the model complex. These seven elements include three hard elements, i.e, strategy, structure, and systems. These are easier to identify and influence by the management. The remaining four soft elements are affected by company culture and can be harder to implement. These include shared values, style, staff, and skills.

McKinsey´s 7S Framework PowerPoint Template
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6. Kübler-Ross Change Curve

The Kübler-Ross Change Curve is also known as the five stages of grief. The model was developed by psychiatrist Elisabeth Kübler-Ross and acknowledges the pain that can be caused due to change, leading to a five-stage grieving process. Change is met with denial and anger, followed by bargaining and depression, until acceptance is reached. Employees can go through a similar process. The model can be used on a small scale to connect with employees to understand their issues and outline steps for achieving set goals related to change management.

Kubler-Ross Change Curve PowerPoint Template
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7. Satir Change Model

Like Kübler-Ross Change Curve, this model too looks at the emotional aspects of change affecting employees. There are five stages in the Satir Change Model to monitor the emotions of employees. For example, the late status quo is deemed the first symptom, interrupting a flow of work or daily life. This is followed by resistance and chaos. These can be deemed as the two emotional consequences for dealing with change. The final two stages include integration and the new status quo. The final stage implies that people eventually adapt to change, and the status quo is achieved again under the new reality.

While the model does not offer a roadmap for adapting to change, understanding the Satir Change Model can help understand how employees deal with change and how they can be facilitated to deal with the transition process emotionally. The model can help address lack of communication, confusion, and resistance to change in an organization.

Virginia Satir´s Change Management Model PPT Template
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8. Bridges’ Transition Model

This is another model which looks at the emotional side of how change affects employees. 

The model breaks down the process of transition into three stages. The first stage includes ending, losing, and letting go. Then people reach the neutral zone. Finally, they can start a new beginning.

The model does not focus on the change process but how an individual is affected by the change. The model starts with letting go of fear, uncertainty, anger, sadness, etc. The resentment eventually reduces, leading one to the neutral zone. This is the bridge between the old and the new. In the end, people embrace change.

9. Lewin’s Change Management Model

This is a three-stage model which  Kurt Lewin developed. The model implies that in the first stage, you must unfreeze and analyze your process for improvement to be understood with ease by everyone. This is followed by change and the transition phase. Once the change has been tweaked and adjusted according to need, the new status quo should undergo refreeze. Hence, the three stages of the model include unfreezing, change and refreeze.

Lewin´s Change Management Model Ice Cubes PPT Template
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10. Maurer 3 Levels of Resistance and Change Model

Unlike other models discussed in this article, the Maurer 3 Levels of Resistance and Change Model focuses on not how change occurs but why it fails. It identifies three levels of resistance, including ¨I don’t get it¨, which is when people are confused regarding the change. ¨I don’t like¨it is the second level when people emotionally react to change, which can exacerbate to level 3, i.e. ¨I don’t like you¨ or feelings of mistrust.

Reasons for Failure of Change Management

As Maurer 3 Levels of Resistance and Change Model explains, change management can fail due to confusion, frustration, resistance, and mistrust among employees. Change management can fail when employees are rushed into change without proper transitions or training. Similarly, when employees aren’t convinced of the need for change, they can consider it unnecessary or take it as a burden.

When organizations fail to win their employees´ trust, train them properly to adapt to change, don’t have measurable goals or fail to make use of data along the transition process, change management fails. 

Change Management Man Making Choices PPT Template

What is Needed for Successful Change Management?

Change is often met with resistance when organizations don’t plan and foresee possible issues that it can bring. It is not only incompetent employees who might resist change. An organization’s best performing employees can also be apprehensive of change due to the tremendous effort it might require adapting to the new status quo. Some employees might need retraining; others might even lose their jobs if the change is too radical. The loss of colleagues, department, rank, familiarity or the old routine can all be frustrating and angering for employees. This is why successful change management requires understanding and addressing these factors.

But it’s not just emotions that need to be kept in check. Making a new process work, merging with another organization or adapting to new technology can result in a lot of trial and error. Much of which can lead to disastrous consequences. This is why each phase of the change needs to be implemented with careful consideration and planning.

To make change management successful, it is necessary to ensure first that employees understand the need for change, and eventually, learn to accept it. This can also be spearheaded with a carrot and stick approach. While employees working to move towards the change can be rewarded, trouble mongers can be disciplined to set the proper examples.

Effective change management also requires setting the right goals, monitoring risks and assumptions, learning from data, practical training, winning the support of employees, and analyzing progress regarding the successful implementation of change.

Final Words

Change is a process that should not be rushed. Careful considerations regarding the cost-benefit analysis, risks and possible resistance to change is necessary to understand how to manage it. Similarly, without winning the trust and confidence of employees, change management can be impossible to implement. Employees might also need time to emotionally accept the change and consider it as a part of their new status quo before they can adapt and exhibit high energy levels towards their new reality. Understanding both the emotional and technical aspects associated with change can help better manage it. Leading to successful change management.

1. Organizational Change Management Plan

The PowerPoint Templates of Organizational Change Management Plan provides a complete slide deck of managing change. It offers 17 slides of appealing diagrams and charts to discuss to analyze and develop business strategy around organizational transformation.

Use This Template

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